What my research has been focusing is on the Russian fire and also the Pakistan flood. What we find is something really interesting is that in fact even those two events are separated spatially, thousands of kilometers away, we find that they're actually connected. Actually there's a cause and effect, linking the two of them.


We found out that they were connected by a large-scale atmospheric phenomenon, which are waves in the atmosphere, so-called Rossby waves, and so the Russian fire is initiated by an atmospheric weather pattern called blocking. What happened is that in this case, the Russian fire started actually already a dry land condition over the land area the Russian area.


So the atmospheric blocking pattern happened then it actually allow this dryness to continue and intensify, and so this produces what we call in atmosphere and climate something called a feedback process, positive feedback. Something will lead to something else and it's will continue to magnify on its own. It magnifies itself to the point that it has what we call in the climate community, a teleconnection. Connection, tele, means long distance so a teleconnection from the Russian blocking situation down to the Pakistan region.