Landsat 9 at Work
- Produced by:
- Matthew Radcliff
- View full credits
For nearly half a century, the Landsat mission has shaped our understanding of Earth. Since the launch of the first Landsat satellite in 1972, the mission has gathered and archived more than 8 million images of our home planet’s terrain, including crop fields and sprawling cities, forests and shrinking glaciers. Landsat 9 will continue and extend that long-running mission to map our home planet.
The Landsat Program is a series of Earth-observing satellite missions jointly managed by NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Landsat satellites have been consistently gathering data about our planet since 1972. They continue to improve and expand this unparalleled record of Earth's changing landscapes for the benefit of all.
Please give credit for this item to:
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
While the video in its entirety can be shared without permission, the music has been obtained through permission and may not be excised or remixed in other products.
- Kate Ramsayer (Telophase)
- Matthew Radcliff (KBRwyle)
- Jeffrey Masek (NASA/GSFC)
- Matthew Radcliff (KBRwyle) [Lead]
- Matthew Radcliff (KBRwyle)
SeriesThis visualization can be found in the following series:
Landsat 9 Launch Footage
Oct. 1, 2021, 11 a.m.Read more
Landsat 9, a NASA satellite built to monitor the Earth’s land surface, successfully launched at 2:12 p.m. EDT Monday from Vandenberg Space Force Base in California.A joint mission with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Landsat 9 lifted off on a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Vandenberg’s Space Launch Complex 3E. Norway’s Svalbard satellite-monitoring ground station acquired signals from the spacecraft about 83 minutes after launch. Landsat 9 is performing as expected as it travels to its final orbital altitude of 438 miles (705 kilometers).Landsat 9 joins its sister satellite, Landsat 8, in orbit. Working in tandem, the two satellites will collect images spanning the entire planet every eight days.The instruments aboard Landsat 9 – the Operational Land Imager 2 (OLI-2) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor 2 (TIRS-2) – measure 11 wavelengths of light reflected or radiated off Earth’s surface, in the visible spectrum as well as other wavelengths beyond what our eyes can detect. As the satellite orbits, these instruments will capture scenes across a swath of 115 miles (185 kilometers). Each pixel in these images represents an area about 98 feet (30 meters) across, about the size of a baseball infield. At that high a resolution, resource managers will be able to identify most crop fields in the United States.The USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, processes and stores data from the instruments, continuously adding that information to the five decades of data from all of the Landsat satellites.All Landsat images and the embedded data are free and publicly available, a policy that has resulted in more than 100 million downloads since its inception in 2008.NASA manages the Landsat 9 mission. Teams from NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, also built and tested the TIRS-2 instrument. NASA’s Launch Services Program, based at the agency’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida managed the launch of the mission. EROS will operate the mission and manage the ground system, including maintaining the Landsat archive. Ball Aerospace in Boulder, Colorado, built and tested the OLI-2 instrument. United Launch Alliance is the rocket provider for Landsat 9’s launch. Northrop Grumman in Gilbert, Arizona, built the Landsat 9 spacecraft, integrated it with instruments, and tested it.To learn more about Landsat 9, visit: https://www.nasa.gov/landsat9 Video showing the countdown and launch of Landsat 9, on Monday, Sept 27, 2021. The satellite launched at 2:12pm EDT, from Vandenberg Space Force Base in California, riding on and Atlas V rocket. Video showing separation of the Landsat 9 satellite frrom the Centaur upper stage of the Atlas V rocket. Landsat 9 launched into space on September 27, 2021, from Vandenberg Space Force Base and is a joint program managed by NASA and the US Geological Survey. NASA’s Landsat 9 satellite launches on a United Launch Alliance Atlas V 401 rocket from Space Launch Complex 3 at Vandenberg Space Force Station in California on Sept. 27, 2021. Launch time was 2:12 p.m. EDT (11:12 a.m. PDT). Credit NASA/Kim ShiflettOriginal file NASA’s Landsat 9 satellite launches on a United Launch Alliance Atlas V 401 rocket from Space Launch Complex 3 at Vandenberg Space Force Station in California on Sept. 27, 2021.Credit: NASA/Kim ShiflettOriginal file NASA’s Landsat 9 satellite launches on a United Launch Alliance Atlas V 401 rocket from Space Launch Complex 3 at Vandenberg Space Force Station in California on Sept. 27, 2021.Credit: NASA/KimShiflettOriginal file For More InformationSee [NASA.gov](URL goes herehttps://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-launches-new-mission-to-monitor-earth-s-landscapes)
NASA To Launch Landsat 9: Continues Nearly 50-Year Legacy of Observing Earth from Space Live Shots
Sept. 23, 2021, 8 a.m.Read more
Quick link to edited B-ROLLQuick link to canned interview with DR JEFF MASEK / Landsat 9 Project Scientist Enlace para B-ROLL editado.Enlace a la entrevista con el DR. JEFF MASEK / Landsat 9 Project Scientist If you’ve used Google Earth, then you’ve seen images of our home planet that only a satellite can bring you. Many of these images come from the Landsat mission -- a joint venture between NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Since the first Landsat launch in 1972, Landsat satellites have provided us with continuous high-resolution images of Earth that are both stunning to look at, and packed with data that have helped shape our understanding of our planet. In particular, the decades-long data record helps researchers around the world understand how Earth is responding to natural and human-caused changes. Over almost 50 years, the Landsat satellites have watched as cities grow, rivers overflow their banks, sea levels rise, wildfires burn and farmers plant their crops. On Monday Sept. 27, NASA will launch Landsat 9, the next in a storied line of missions observing Earth’s surface. ** Launch window opens at 2:11pm EST / 11:11am PST that day! ** The Landsat 9 observatory will continue to build on this understanding of our home planet with even higher imaging capabilities than previous Landsats. Join NASA and USGS experts for one-on-one interviews just hours before Landsat 9 launches from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. * Live interviews will be available from 6:00 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. EASTERN TIME on Monday, Sept. 27rd. *Click here to request an interview: https://forms.gle/vREXDyc8aaYzF1tu8* For more information about Landsat visit: https://www.nasa.gov/specials/landsat/ *Please note that we may not be able to accommodate all requests for a specific expert. If we cannot fit your request we will offer alternatives.* Suggested Anchor Intro: If you’ve used Google Earth before you’ve seen images of our planet that only a satellite can bring you. Many of these images come from the Landsat mission, which has been monitoring how Earth is changing for nearly 50 years. NASA and the USGS will be launching Landsat 9 today to continue bringing you those images, which help experts manage wildfires and water resources and help track the impacts of climate change. Here to tell us about the mission is NASA [or USGS] scientist XX. Suggested Questions:Landsat 9 is launching today to continue the mission that started in 1972. What is the Landsat mission?How is Landsat 9 different from the previous Landsat satellites? Landsat is known for its beautiful images, but this data is telling us a lot about how our planet is changing. How does Landsat data directly help people on the ground?Why is it important that NASA and USGS continue the Landsat mission?Where can our viewers go to learn more about Landsat? Questions for Longer Interviews:How does this help people/resource managers?How does this help us grow food?How often do Landsat satellites image a given place on Earth? Canned interview with Dr. Jeff Masek/ Landsat 9 Project Scientist. TRT - 3:43. SOTS are separated by question slates. Full transcript is available. Click on the download button and you ll find the transcript plus video material Assocated b-roll for the Landsat 9 pre-launch live shots
Landsat Lightpath Animations
Jan. 12, 2021, 3 p.m.Read more
For nearly half a century, the Landsat mission has shaped our understanding of Earth. Since the launch of the first Landsat satellite in 1972, the mission has gathered and archived more than 8 million images of our home planet’s terrain, including crop fields and sprawling cities, forests and shrinking glaciers. These data-rich images are free and publicly available, leading to scientific discoveries and informed resource management.Landsat 9 will carry two instruments that largely replicate the instruments on Landsat 8: the Operational Land Imager 2 (OLI-2) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor 2 (TIRS-2). OLI-2 and TIRS-2 are optical sensors that detect 11 wavelengths of visible, near infrared, shortwave infrared, and thermal infrared light as it is reflected or emitted from the planet’s surface. Data from these instruments are processed and stored at the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota—where decades worth of data from all of the Landsat satellites are stored and made available for free to the public.The Landsat mission, a partnership between NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), has provided the longest continuous record of Earth’s land surfaces from space. The consistency of Landsat’s land-cover data from sensor to sensor and year to year makes it possible to trace land-cover changes from 1972 to the present, and it will continue into the future with Landsat 9. With better technology than ever before, Landsat 9 will enhance and extend the data record to the 50-year mark and beyond. Data collection of the OLI-2 instrument aboard Landsat 9. OLI-2 will have a 98-foot (30-meter) spatial resolution across most of its spectral bands, meaning each pixel represents an area about the size of a baseball infield. Altogether, the sensors cover a swath 115 miles (185 kilometers) wide. This combination of a wide swath and moderate resolution allows OLI-2 to cover large areas, while still providing fine enough resolution to distinguish individual agricultural fields, forest plots or housing developments—important information for urban planners, land resource managers and commodity analysts.Light from the sun reflects off Earth s surface shines into OLI-2, bouncing off of five mirrors before shining through a set of wavelength filters covering the focal plane. On the focal plane are thousands of detectors, aligned in rows. These detectors are sensitive to light reflecting off Earth’s surface in nine different wavelengths, including visible, near-infrared and short-wave-infrared light. With data from these bands, either alone or in combination, Earth’s surface is revealed. Data collection of the TIRS-2 instrument aboard Landsat 9. Whether it’s a cornfield, a parking lot, or an iceberg, a surface emits thermal infrared radiation, or heat. By detecting radiation in two thermal wavelengths, Landsat 9’s TIRS-2 instrument can measure the temperature of our planet’s ground and water. TIRS-2 works on the same principles as the original TIRS on Landsat 8, but corrects a problem the first instrument had with scattered light inside the telescope. And while TIRS has a three-year design life, TIRS-2 is built with increased robustness and redundancy to last at least five years. TIRS-2, like OLI-2, is a “push-broom” sensor with arrays of detectors that line up to observe a field of view that is 115 miles (185 kilometers) across, with a resolution of 328 feet (100 meters). In this example, TIRS-2 is collecting data south of Fort Worth, Texas, on July 17, 2020. Lightpath animation of TIRS-2. TIRS-2 uses thermal bands to detect subtle shiftsin temperature—within a tenth of a degree Celsius. Its detectors are called Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors, or QWIPs, and were developed at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Thermal infrared radiation in a specific wavelength will excite electrons within the QWIPs, creating an electrical signal that is used to determine surface temperature. Data collection of the OLI-2 instrument aboard Landsat 9. (w/o side panel) Side panel for the data collection of the OLI-2 instrument aboard Landsat 9, showing data south of Fort Worth, TX, on July 17, 2020. Data collection of the TIRS-2 instrument aboard Landsat 9. (w/o side panel) Side panel for the data collection of the TIRS-2 instrument aboard Landsat 9, showing data collected south of Fort Worth, TX, on July 17, 2020.
First Global Survey of Glacial Lakes Shows 30-Years of Dramatic Growth
Aug. 31, 2020, 7 a.m.Read more
Data visualization featuring the glacier rich region of the Himalayas, along with many of Earth’s highest peaks. The visualization sequence starts with a wide view of the Tibetan plateau and moves along a hiking path highlighting Mt. Everest, Mt. Lhotse, Mt Nuptse, the Everest Base Camp, the Khumbhu glacier, all the way to Imja Lake. Moving to a top-down view of Imja Lake, a time series of Landsat data unveils its dramatic growth for the period 1989-2019.This video is also available on our YouTube channel. Glaciers are retreating on a near-global scale due to rising temperatures and climate change. The melt and retreat of glaciers contributes to sea level rise and in the formation of glacial lakes typically right at the foot of the glaciers. In the largest-ever study of glacial lakes, NASA-funded researchers Dan Shugar et al. working under a grant from NASA’s High Mountain Asia Program found that glacial lake volume has increased by about 50% worldwide since 1990. The findings, published in the journal Nature Climate Change with the title Rapid worldwide growth of glacial lakes since 1990 affect how researchers evaluate the amount of glacial meltwater reaching the oceans and contributing to sea level rise as well as evaluate hazard risks for mountain communities downstream. Glacial lakes, which are often dammed by ice or glacial sediment called a moraine, are not stable like the lakes most people are used to swimming or boating in. Rather, they can be quite unstable and can burst their banks or dams, causing massive floods downstream. These kinds of floods from glacial lakes, also known as glacial lake outburst floods or GLOFs, have been responsible for thousands of deaths over the last century, as well as the destruction of villages, infrastructure and livestock.The data visualization featured on this page showcases the glacier rich and wondrous landscape of High Mountain Asia and provides a glimpse into how glacial lakes have increased during the last thirty years, by demonstrating the growth of Imja Lake for the period 1989-2019. It is important to mention that while Imja Lake is just one of the 14,394 glacial lakes analyzed by the science team in the study for the period of 2015-2018, it serves as a vivid example due to its dramatic growth.The visualization sequence starts with a wide view of Asia and the Tibetan plateau and slowly zooms into the Himalayan region, which includes many of Earth’s highest peaks and is paired with the highest concentration of snow and glaciers outside of the polar regions. Soon after a block of the Eastern Himalayan region rises featuring realistically scaled terrain data from the High Mountain Asia 8-meter Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The 8-meter DEM is draped over with Landsat 8 data from the same region. The sequence takes us on a hiking path from Mt. Everest (8,848 m / 29,029 ft), Mt. Lhotse (8,516 m / 27,940 ft) and Mt. Nuptse (7,861 m / 25,791 ft), to the Everest Base Camp, the Khumbu Glacier all the way to Imja Lake. Moving to a top-down view, a time series of geo-registered Landsat data unveils the growth of Imja Lake from 1989 to 2019. Outlines of the Imja Lake extents highlight the growth during the 30 years occurring from meltwater from the adjacent glaciers.Until now climate models that translated glacier melt into sea level change assumed that water from glacier melt is instantaneously transported to the oceans, which presented an incomplete picture. Therefore, understanding how much of glacial meltwater is stored in lakes or groundwater underscores the importance of studying and monitoring glacial lakes worldwide. Data Sources:High Mountain Asia 8-meter Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived from Optical Imagery, Version 1. The dataset is available from the NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center (NSIDC DAAC). The DEM is realistically scaled (Vertical exaggeration 1x) in this visualization. The DEM is generated from very-high-resolution imagery from DigitalGlobe satellites (GEOEYE-1, QUICKBIRD-2, WORLDVIEW-1, WORLDVIEW-2, WORLDVIEW-3) during the period of 28 January 2002 to 24 November 2016.Citation: Shean, D. 2017. High Mountain Asia 8-meter DEM Mosaics Derived from Optical Imagery, Version 1. [Subset Used: HMA_DEM8m_MOS_20170716_tile-677 | subregion with extents 27.7394 E ]. Boulder, Colorado USA. NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center. doi: https://doi.org/10.5067/KXOVQ9L172S2. [Date Accessed: 06/17/2020]. Landsat 5, Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 data comprise the time series of Imja Lake for the period 1989-2019. Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) Level-1 Data Products (doi: https://doi.org/10.5066/F7N015TQ) were used for the period 1989-1999. The Landsat 5 Product Identifiers are:LT05_L1TP_140041_19891109_20170201_01_T1LT05_L1TP_140041_19900112_20170201_01_T1LT05_L1TP_140041_19910131_20170128_01_T1LT05_L1TP_140041_19921117_20170121_01_T1LT05_L1TP_140041_19931120_20170116_01_T1LT05_L1TP_140041_19941022_20170111_01_T1LT05_L1TP_140041_19951009_20170106_01_T1LT05_L1TP_140041_19961112_20170102_01_T1LT05_L1TP_140041_19970216_20170101_01_T1LT05_L1TP_140041_19981102_20161220_01_T1LT05_L1TP_140041_19990427_20161219_01_T1Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) Level-1 Data Products (doi: https://doi.org/10.5066/F7WH2P8G) were used for the period 2000-2012. The Landsat 7 Product Identifiers are:LE07_L1TP_140041_20001030_20170209_01_T1LE07_L1TP_140041_20011017_20170202_01_T1LE07_L1TP_140041_20021020_20170127_01_T1LE07_L1TP_140041_20030124_20170126_01_T1LE07_L1TP_140041_20041110_20170117_01_T1LE07_L1TP_140041_20051113_20170112_01_T1LE07_L1TP_140041_20060116_20170111_01_T1LE07_L1TP_140041_20070103_20170105_01_T1LE07_L1TP_140041_20081020_20161224_01_T1LE07_L1TP_140041_20091023_20161217_01_T1LE07_L1TP_140041_20101026_20161212_01_T1LE07_L1TP_140041_20111013_20161206_01_T1LE07_L1TP_140041_20121015_20161127_01_T1Landsat 8 Operational Land Imagery (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) Level-1 Data Products (doi: https://doi.org/10.5066/F71835S6) were used for the period 2013-2019. The Landsat 8 Product Identifiers are:LC08_L1TP_140041_20131010_20170429_01_T1LC08_L1TP_140041_20140927_20170419_01_T1LC08_L1TP_140041_20150930_20170403_01_T1LC08_L1TP_140041_20161018_20170319_01_T1LC08_L1TP_140041_20171021_20171106_01_T1LC08_L1TP_140041_20181024_20181031_01_T1LC08_L1TP_140041_20191112_20191115_01_T1**Draped over the High Mountain Asia 8-meter Digital Elevation Model (DEM) during the visualization.For the purposes of this data visualization the above Landsat data were processed and color-stretched. Bands 3-2-1 were used for Landsat 5 and 7 data. Bands 4-3-2 were used for Landsat 8 data. In addition, Landsat 7 and 8 data used pan-chromatic sharpening (Band 8). Landsat 5, Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 data courtesy of the U.S Geological Survey and NASA Landsat. Blue Marble: Next Generation was produced by Reto Stöckli, NASA Earth Observatory (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center). Citation: Reto Stöckli, Eric Vermote, Nazmi Saleous, Robert Simmon and David Herring. The Blue Marble Next Generation – A true color earth dataset including seasonal dynamics from MODIS, October 17, 2005.Global 30 Arc-Second Eleveation (GTOPO 30) from USGS. doi: https://doi.org/10.5066/F7DF6PQSShuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 1 Arc-Second Global. doi: https://doi.org/10.5066/F7PR7TFTNepal city labels and locations were created using Natural Earth 1:10m Cultural Vectors (Populated places database) and OpenStreetMap data.The rest of this webpage offers additional versions and visual material associated with the development of this data-driven visualization. Data visualization content in 9600x3240 resolution. This set of frames can be shown on 3x3 and 5x3 hyperwalls. A lower resolution preview movie is provided and it includes lines to illustrate the extents of the hyperwall screens. Zoom in to the region without the city names - for video editors who may want to fade the names out. Animated gif image of Imja Lake in 1989 and in 2019 using Landsat data.
Landsat with Sentinel - Global Coverage
March 3, 2020, 6 a.m.Read more
Satellite data offers a broad, global view of land surface changes, but cloud cover interferes with collecting data. Landsat satellites provide observations every 16 days, and having two satellites reduces that to every 8 days. The European Space Agency Sentinel-2 satellites collect data in similar wavelengths and at a similar spatial resolution, enabling the data to be combined for even more observations. When harmonized into one data set, the result is global observations every two or three days at 30-meter resolution. Any application looking at very dynamic phenomena, where changes occur on the timescales of a few days or weeks, will benefit from the harmonized Landsat/Sentinel dataset. For example, crop condition and area, burned area, or surface water extent. Also, this will benefit any application where short-term environmental conditions (like drought) have a rapid impact on ecosystems. This visualization depicts the orbits and data swaths of the Landsat 8, Landsat 9, Sentinel 2a, and Sentinel 2b satellites. The satellites appear one at a time with their respective data swaths. As time progresses throughout the visualization, the satellites ‘paint’ the globe with imagery to show how the four spacecraft work together to build a complete picture of the Earth. This visualization depicts the orbits and data swaths of the Landsat 8 and Landsat 9 satellites. The satellites appear (beginning first with Landsat 8) with their respective data swaths. As time progresses throughout the visualization, the satellites ‘paint’ the globe with imagery to show how the two spacecraft work together to build a complete picture of the Earth. This visualization depicts the orbits and data swaths of the Landsat 8, Landsat 9, Sentinel 2a, and Sentinel 2b satellites. The satellites appear (beginning first with Landsat 8) with their respective data swaths. As time progresses throughout the visualization, the satellites ‘paint’ the globe with imagery to show how the four spacecraft work together to build a complete picture of the Earth.
Seasonal Speed Variation on Heimdal Glacier
Dec. 12, 2016, 9:30 a.m.Read more
The NASA/USGS Landsat 8 mission has allowed new views of the Earth’s glaciers. By tracking displacement of local surface features through the seasons on outlet glaciers from the large ice sheets, researchers from the University of Alaska, the University of Bristol, and the University of Colorado have been able to show that each glacier around Greenland has a unique pattern of flow variation through the seasons. Seasonal variations, seen in this animation on the lower 25 kilometers of Heimdal Glacier in southeast Greenland, are caused by a combination of processes. For Heimdal, the largest forcing for flow variation is likely the input of increasing amounts of surface melt water through the Spring and Summer, but there is also an interplay between calving of ice from the end of the glacier, flow acceleration as shown in the animation, and thinning of the ice due to the extra stretching from the faster flow. By measuring these changes in flow on seasonal timescales, scientists can develop a better understanding of what controls the flow of these glaciers where they meet the ocean. This understanding will improve our ability to anticipate flow responses of these systems in a warming climate. This visualization shows the seasonal ice velocity on the Heimdal Glacier in Greenland between October 2013 and October 2016. The color of the flow vectors represent the speed of the flow, with purple representing the slow moving ice and red showing the fast ice. The color scale is displayed in the lower left corner.This video is also available on our YouTube channel. The above visualization without the date or color bar. The date and colorbar with transparency.
Nebraska Water Usage
Oct. 14, 2015, 8 a.m.Read more
Water managers in 15 states across the U.S. currently use Metric technology to track agricultural water use. Metric measures evapotranspiration (ET)—the amount of water evaporating from the soil and transpiring from a plant’s leaves. The thermal band data on Landsat satellites allows water specialists to measure ET. This process cools the plant down so irrigated farm fields appear cooler (bluer) in Landsat satellite images. The latest evolution of METRIC technology—an application called EEFLUX, will allow anyone in the world to produce field-scale maps of water consumption, including on mobile devices. Metric was developed in the early 2000s and to date EEFLUX has been introduced to the California Department of Water Resources, the California Water Control Board, and the World Bank. Animation begins with a wide view of the entire United States and then zooms down to an area in Nebraska where water usage studies have been done using Landsat-8 satellite data. The camera slowly pans across the area first showing true color Landsat-8 data, then transitioning to temperature data (in shades of orange and violet), then to ETRF (shades of green), ending with an extrusion of water use data (shades of blue) where the camera pulls back to show the entire area of interest. Print resolution still of the Nebraska water use study area. Landsat-8 temperature colorbar. Evapotranspiration Ratio (ETrF) colorbar. Water usage colorbar.
Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) Orbits
April 15, 2012, 8 p.m.Read more
The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), also to be named Landsat 8 after its scheduled launch in February 2013, will be the eighth in the series of Landsat satellites. Since 1972, Landsat satellites have been observing and measuring Earth s continental and coastal landscapes at 15 to 30 meter resolution, where human impacts and natural changes can be monitored and characterized over time.This animation portrays how the LDCM satellite will orbit the Earth 13 times per day at an altitude of 705 km collecting landcover data. With a cross-track width of 185 km, the satellite will completely cover the globe in a 16 day period compiling a total of 233 orbits. A day number and the elapsed time are shown to clearly depict the passage of time which starts slowly in the beginning and increases to day-by-day steps at the end of the animation. The terrain is exaggerated by 6 times during the first day portrayed, but is increased to 12 times when the camera pulls out to a global view. An artificial orbit trail is shown following the spacecraft to indicate its position when the satellite itself is too small to be visible. The composite animation of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) satellite orbiting the Earth, with the satellite, Earth, stars and day/time overlay.This video is also available on our YouTube channel. The composite animation with the satellite, Earth and stars. The Earth and satellite layer with transparency. The background star field The day/time overlay with transparency A still image of the LDCM satellite and the ground swath. Frame set designed for a 5x3 hyperwall.